Monday, 11 January 2010

Landscape Art - A Timeline in Art History

This post outlines the different art movements and schools of painting in the different countries which I hope to feature on this blog.

I'm not going to tackle the development of landscape art according to a timeline, however I do want to be very clear about what the timeline is and how one movement or school influences another - hence this post.

It will also serve a purpose as an index. This post will be updated with links to the relevant posts as they are posted. This blog is, in effect, going to become something akin to a database which is updated over time. (I'll date posts at the end if they as and when they are updated).

I've also separated the posts out into continents to highlight the georgraphical aspects of the development of landscape art


  • Landscape Art in China
    • Song Dynasty (960-1279) - DongYuan, Guo Xi and Ju Ran;
    • Southerhn Song Dynasty (1172-1279) - Ma Yuan and Xia Gui;
    • Yuan Dynasty (1279-1368) Huang Gongweng, Wu Zhen, Ni Zan and Wang Meng
    • Ming Dynasty (1368 to 1644) - Dai Yin, Shen Zou, Weng Zhengming, Yang Yin, Qui Ying, Dong Qichang,
    • Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) - Zha Du, the Four Wangs: Wang Shimin, Wang Hui, Wang Jian, Wang Yunagi, Wu Li, Shitao, Hongren, Kuncan, Gong Xian
  • Landscape Art in Japan
    • Muromachi Period (1333-1573) - Sesshu Toyo, Kano Eitoku, Hasagawa Tohaku
    • Edo Period (1615-1858) - Kano Tan'yu, Hokusai, Hiroshige
  • Landscape Art in India
    • Rajput painting (1800-1900) - country life


  • Landscape Art and Roman Painting - (c510BCE- 478CE)
  • Landscape Art and Early Italian Art - (13th & 14th centuries): Ambrogio Lorenzetti and the panorama; Giotto and the development of depth in the picture plane
  • Landscape Art and Gothic Art - (15th century) Limbourg Brothers and illuminated manuscripts
  • Landscape Art and the Italian Renaissance (c. 1400-1525)- Piero della Francesco; Massacio, Andrea Mantegna, Leonardo da Vinci and Georgione; the development of perspective; landscape as background
  • Landscape Art and the Northern Renaissance
    • Flemish Renaissance (c. 1400-c.1540) Pieter Brughal the Elder - The Months, rural life; Jan van Eyck, Rogier van der Weyden and the landscape through the window;
    • German Renaissance (c.1440-c.1540) Albrecht Altdorfer - landscapes with no story; Joachim Patinir and the panorama; Albrecht Durer
  • Landscape Art and Mannerism (c.1520-c.1610) - El Greco and the dramatic landscape
  • Claud Lorrain, Nicholas Poussin,
  • Landscape Art and the Baroque (c1600-1720) - Claud Lorrain and the ideal landscape, Salvator Rosa, Nicolas Poussin and setting the scene, Peter Paul Rubens and landscapes for pleasure; Jacon van Ruisdel and Dutch landscapes, Aelbbert Cuyp and the luminous landscape, William van der Velde and marine painting
  • Landscape Art and the Rococo (c1700-1780) - Watteau, Piranesi and the Grand Tour, Canaletto (Giovanni Antonion Canal) and topographical views
  • Landscape Art and Neoclassicism (1770s-1810s) -
  • Landscape Art and the German Romantics - Danube School, Caspar David Friedrich, Albert Bierstadt, Karl Blechen
  • Landscape Art and Realism - Camille Corot, Jean-François Millet, Courbet,
    • Introduction to the Barbizon School - Charles-François Daubigny, Pierre Étienne Théodore Rousseau, Jules Dupré
  • Landscape Art and French Impressionism - Claude Monet, Camille Pissaro, Alfred Sisley
  • Landscape Art and Spanish Impressionism - Joaquin Sorolla y Bastida
  • Landscape Art and Neo Impressionism - Seurat
  • Landscape Art and Post Impressionism - Cezanne, Paul Gauguin, Vincent Van Gogh
Montagne Saint Victoire 1890 by Paul Cézanne
oil on canvas; Height 0.65m ; Width 0.92m

Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France
photo copyright Katherine Tyrrell
  • Landscape Art in the early 20th century - the abstraction of the landscape: Kandinsky. Mondrian,
    • Landscape Art and Fauvism - Andre Derain, Henri Matisse
    • Landscape Art in Scandinavia - Aksell Gallen-Kallela,
    • Landscape Art in Russia - Valentin Serov, Konstantin Alekseyevich Korovin, Ivan Shishkin, Isaac Levitan
    • Landscape Art in Austria - Gustav Klimt
    • Landscape Art and The School of Paris - Utrillo
    • Landscape Art and Surrealism - Magritte, Dali
  • Contemporary European Landscape Art


  • Landscape Art and the British Rococo - Richard Wilson and the idealised classical tradition; Thomas Gainsborough and the country house portrait
  • Landscape Art and British Neoclassicism - George Stubbs and the picturesque setting for animals
  • Landscape Art and the Influence of the Royal Academy - the influence of Joshua Reynolds
  • Landscape Art and the English Watercolourists - landscape art in watercolour in the 17th and 18th centuries - Turner, Cotman, Girtin, Cox, Cozens
  • Landscape Art and the Nazarenes - William Dyce
  • Landscape Art and the Bristish Romantics - Richard Parkes Bonington, JMW Turner, John Constable
  • Landscape Art and the Visionaries - Samuel Palmer, John Martin
  • Landscape Art and the Pre-Raphaelites - William Holman Hunt; Ford Madox Brown
  • Landscape Art and English Impressionists - Phillip Wilson Steer
  • Landscape Art and Naieve Painting (early 20th century) - Alfred Wallis
  • Landscape Art and the Avant Garde (early 20th century) - Graham Sutherland, Paul Nash
  • Landscape Art and British Regional Painters - LS Lowry, Atkinson Grimshaw, the Heaton Coopers, Eric Ravilious, John Piper
  • Landscape Art and the Scottish Colourists - Samuel Peploe
  • Contemporary British Landscape Art - David Prentice, Kurt Jackson, David Hockney,

North America

  • Landscape Art and Colonial America (17th and 18th centuries) - ?
  • Landscape Art and the Hudson River School (American Romantics) - Thomas Cole, Frederic Edwin Church, Asher Brown Durand, Sanford Robinson Gifford
  • American Landscape Art - Painting the West - Rocky Mountain School: Thomas Moran
  • Landscape Art and American Impressionism - Childe Hassam, William Merritt Chase, John Henry Twachtman, Theodore Robinson
  • American Landscape Art in the early twentieth century - Winslow Homer, James McNeil Whistler, John Singer Sargent
  • Landscape Art and American Modernism - Arthur Dove,
  • Landscape Art and American Naieve Painting (early 20th century) - Grandma Moses
  • American Landscape Art and Regionalist Painters - Grant Wood, Thomas Hart Benton,
  • American Landscape Art in the 20 century - John Carlson, Georgia O'Keeffe, Andrew Wyeth, Wolf Kahn, Andy Warhol, Wayne Thiebaud, David Hockney
  • Canadian Landscape Art and the Group of Seven J.E.H. MacDonald, Franklin Carmichael, Frank Johnston, Arthur Lismer, Lawren S. Harris, Frederick Varley and A.Y. Jackson.
  • Contemporary North American Landscape Art
I still need to check to see who I've missed out, add in contemporary painters for every continent - and find an image for this post!


I've used a mass of books to produce this list. However two I used to check out art movements and dates are:


Leslie Hawes said...

This link may be of interest. It highlights The Taos Founders group of artists. Could be classified under North American 20th Century or Regionalist painters on the list.
Southwestern contemporary art remains influenced by these artists.

Anonymous said...

"contemporary British Landscape.. Prentice, Jackson Hockney" .. should be Modern and contemporary Landscape (or that could be split) but should include... David Bomberg, and followers Frank Auerbach, Leon Kossof and Dennis Creffield. More contemporary would be Michael Porter, Jock McFadyen (more urban) and then there's Lucy Jones, Christopher LeBrun, Bill Jacklin, John Virtue, Barbara Rae, and earlier Ivon Hitchens....

Making A Mark said...

It's just a start -it's a very long way from definitive so suggestions are always welcome

I'll also want to split out the artists doing urban landscapes from the rural at some point

Charlene Brown said...

I’ve constructed a bare-bones outline of the movements in landscape painting by hi-lighting them in a ten-page “History of Design” that I started putting together a couple of years ago to organize my (somewhat randomly acquired) knowledge of archaeology and art history. There’s a link to it on today’s post on my blog, 1150 Words

Making A Mark said...

That's a very impressive document Charlene! Thanks so much for this contribution - I've printed it off and will update this index tomorrow